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Current Protein & Peptide Science


ISSN (Print): 1389-2037
ISSN (Online): 1875-5550

Review Article

A Review of the Common Neurodegenerative Disorders: Current Therapeutic Approaches and the Potential Role of Bioactive Peptides

Author(s): Kuldeep Singh*, Jeetendra Kumar Gupta, Shivendra Kumar and Urvashi Soni

Volume 25, Issue 7, 2024

Published on: 29 March, 2024

Page: [507 - 526] Pages: 20

DOI: 10.2174/0113892037275221240327042353

Price: $65


Neurodegenerative disorders, which include Alzheimer's disease (AD), Parkinson's disease (PD), Huntington's disease (HD), and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), represent a significant and growing global health challenge. Current therapies predominantly focus on symptom management rather than altering disease progression. In this review, we discuss the major therapeutic strategies in practice for these disorders, highlighting their limitations. For AD, the mainstay treatments are cholinesterase inhibitors and N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonists. For PD, dopamine replacement therapies, including levodopa, are commonly used. HD is managed primarily with symptomatic treatments, and reusable extends survival in ALS. However, none of these therapies halts or substantially slows the neurodegenerative process. In contrast, this review highlights emerging research into bioactive peptides as potential therapeutic agents. These naturally occurring or synthetically designed molecules can interact with specific cellular targets, potentially modulating disease processes. Preclinical studies suggest that bioactive peptides may mitigate oxidative stress, inflammation, and protein misfolding, which are common pathological features in neurodegenerative diseases. Clinical trials using bioactive peptides for neurodegeneration are limited but show promising initial results. For instance, hemiacetal, a γ-secretase inhibitor peptide, has shown potential in AD by reducing amyloid-beta production, though its development was discontinued due to side effects. Despite these advancements, many challenges remain, including identifying optimal peptides, confirming their mechanisms of action, and overcoming obstacles related to their delivery to the brain. Future research should prioritize the discovery and development of novel bioactive peptides and improve our understanding of their pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics. Ultimately, this approach may lead to more effective therapies for neurodegenerative disorders, moving beyond symptom management to potentially modify the course of these devastating diseases.

Keywords: Neurodegenerative disorders, Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, current therapeutic strategies, bioactive peptides, neuroprotection, neurodegeneration, treatment modalities.

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