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Anti-Inflammatory & Anti-Allergy Agents in Medicinal Chemistry

Editor-in-Chief

ISSN (Print): 1871-5230
ISSN (Online): 1875-614X

Research Article

Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) Analysis of Scaphium Affine Seed Extract and Assessment of Its Anti-hemorrhoidal Efficacy

Author(s): Syed A. Abbas, Abdullah Khan, Mehraj Fatima, Anandarajagopal Kalusalingam, Mahibub M. Kanakal, Shiva K. Inamdar, Vijay Kotra, Long C. Ming, Ashok K.M. Dastapur and Tazneem Bachi*

Volume 23, Issue 2, 2024

Published on: 14 February, 2024

Page: [118 - 128] Pages: 11

DOI: 10.2174/0118715230285370240131111539

Price: $65

Abstract

Background: Seeds of plant Scaphium affine are traditionally used by the healers of “India” for the treatment of piles.

Objectives: The primary objective of the study was to assess the anti-hemorrhoidal potential of the ethanolic seed extract of Scaphium affine.

Methods: After the soxhlet extraction method, the seed extract from Scaphium affine was first submitted to phytochemical standardization and then GC-MS analysis. Rats were given Croton oil and Jatropha oil to develop hemorrhoids, and Scaphium affine seed extract (ESA) was administered orally for 5 days and 3 days, respectively, at doses of 1000 and 500 mg/kg. The Rectoanal coefficient (RAC) was calculated as an inflammatory marker. The hemorrhoidal tissues were also subjected to cytokine profiling, biochemical estimation and histopathology.

Results: ESA demonstrated the presence of flavonoids, saponins, phytosterols, phenols, and tannins. GCMS analysis elucidated the presence of hexadecanoic acid 2 hydroxy -1,3 propane diyl ester,9 Octadecanoic acid ethyl ester, Cyclohexane 1,4 di methyl cis, Farnesol isomer,1, E-11, Z-13 octa decatriene, Stigmasterol, N-(5 ethyl -1,3,4-thiadiazol-yl) benzamide, N, N Dinitro 1,3,5,7 tetraza bicyclo 93,3,1) as major phytoconstituents. The results depicted more potent anti-hemorrhoidal activity of ESA at 1000 mg/kg, p.o., which was evident through a decrease in RAC. A significant decline in the levels of IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α expression was observed, along with the restoration of altered antioxidants and enzymes. Histopathological analysis confirmed the tissue recovery as it revealed minimal inflammation and decreased dilated blood vessels in treated animals.

Conclusion: Based on the results it can be concluded that seeds of Scaphium affine showed significant anti-hemorrhoid agents which may be attributed to their anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant potential due to the presence of certain phytoconstituents in it. The study also supports the traditional use of seeds of Scaphium affine for the first time in the treatment of hemorrhoids.

Keywords: Piles, anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, Scaphium affine, GCMS, histopathology.

Graphical Abstract

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