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Current Diabetes Reviews


ISSN (Print): 1573-3998
ISSN (Online): 1875-6417

Scoping Review

Type 2 Diabetes Prevalence, Control and Management within Fiji, Kiribati, Samoa, the Solomon Islands, Tonga, and Vanuatu: A Scoping Review with a Systematic Approach

Author(s): Timothy Kuek*

Volume 20, Issue 10, 2024

Published on: 22 January, 2024

Article ID: e220124225914 Pages: 17

DOI: 10.2174/0115733998260306231025151814

Price: $65


Background: Type 2 diabetes (T2D) causes significant morbidity and is disproportionately prevalent in Pacific Island Countries (PICs). The socio-political demographics of PICs are rapidly changing, and health services must adapt to match the needs of their population.

Objectives: The objective of this study was to review the literature published within the last 15 years relating to T2D prevalence, control, and management, with a specific focus on targetable areas for future funding and research projects.

Methods: This review was conducted using the PRISMA guidelines. Inclusion criteria were: discussion on T2D in the six PICs. Results were limited to those published between 1st January, 2006, and 27th July, 2023.

Results: A total of 6,640 publications were retrieved, and 110 met the inclusion criteria. Nineteen additional studies were identified through hand-searching. T2D prevalence differed between countries but was predicted to increase in the coming decades, with projections of up to 31.2% by 2030 in Tonga. Factors associated with T2D varied between countries, including Indian-Fijian ethnicity in Fiji and tuberculosis in Kiribati. Control was generally poor, with high rates of undiagnosed diabetes and microvascular complications. Epidemiological data was limited in some cases, as was information describing the structure and function of diabetes services.

Conclusion: The prevalence, control, and management of T2D varied between Fiji, Kiribati, Samoa, the Solomon Islands, Tonga, and Vanuatu. Significant gaps remain in the data describing these domains; however, there are clearly targetable areas for future research and diabetes management programs.

Keywords: Pacific islands, diabetes, Fiji, Kiribati, Samoa, Solomon islands, Tonga, Vanuatu.

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