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Current Nutraceuticals


ISSN (Print): 2665-9786
ISSN (Online): 2665-9794

Review Article

Evaluation of Neuroprotective effect of Cassia occidentalis L. against Colchicine Induced Memory Impairment in Wistar Rats

Author(s): Devika Jadhav, Nikita Saraswat*, Neeraj Vyawahare and Devendra Shirode

Volume 5, 2024

Published on: 26 December, 2023

Article ID: e261223224844 Pages: 17

DOI: 10.2174/0126659786275281231207115631

Price: $65


Background: Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a progressive neurological disorder that develops with aging.

Objective: In this research, we have examined the anti - Alzheimer’s effect of ethanolic extract from roots of Cassia occidentalis L. on colchicine-induced Alzheimer’s in Wistar rats.

Methods: Ethanolic extract was obtained and spectroscopic, chromatography analysis was performed. Acute toxicity studies using Organization of Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) Guidelines 423 were performed to examine and make sure that there were no signs of toxic effects. The induction of AD was done using colchicine which leads to symptoms like neurotoxicity, neuroinflammation, and neurodegeneration. In this experiment, a thorough analysis of body weight, behavioral parameters, locomotor activity, and biochemical evaluation was performed to estimate the medicinal properties of Cassia occidentalis L in treating Alzheimer’s disease.

Results: Pharmacognostic analysis showed the presence of vascular bundles, starch grains, fibers, calcium oxalate crystals, elongated parenchyma, and collenchyma mucilage as shown in the supplementary files. Locomotor activity, Escape latency time, Conditioned avoidance response, and Transfer latency were improved with treatment. Interleukin- 6 (IL - 6) levels were reduced significantly in the Colchicine + 200 Cassia mg/kg group (739.2 ± 0.37 pg/ml) than in the Colchicine Group (850.6 ± 0.40 pg/ml). Tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α) was decreased in the Colchicine + 200 Cassia mg/kg Group (1030.93 ± 0.51 pg/ml) than in the Colchicine Group (1455.06 ± 1.25 pg/ml). A significant decrease in total protein level was observed in the Colchicine Group (2.52 ± 0.10 mg/ml), (3.33 ± 0.90 mg/ml) as compared to Colchicine + 200 Cassia mg/kg Group (5.27 ± 0.09 mg/ml, (5.01 ± 0.10 mg/ml) respectively, in the Hippocampus and Entorhinal cortex. The levels of antioxidant enzymes such as Catalase (CAT), Serum superoxide dismutase (SOD), Reduced glutathione (GSH) and Malondialdehyde (MDA) were measured. When compared to the Colchicine Group (7.33 ± 0.16 nM/ mg, the MDA level was lower in the Colchicine + 100 Cassia mg/kg Group (3.20 ± 0.01 nM/ mg). The level of CAT in Colchicine + 200 Cassia mg/kg Group (7.01 ± 0.03 μmoles of H2O2/mg of protein) was seen to be increased when compared to Colchicine Group (3.32 ± 0.17 μmoles of H2O2/mg of protein). The level of SOD in Colchicine + 200 Cassia mg/kg Group (7.43 ± 0.02 U mg -1 of protein) was seen to be increased when compared with Colchicine Group (4.55 ± 0.03 U mg -1 of protein). The level of GSH in Colchicine + 200 Cassia mg/kg Group (10.07 ± 0.19 nM/mg -1 of protein) was increased when compared with the Colchicine Group (5.82 ± 0.11nM/mg -1 of protein). Histopathology of the Hippocampus and Entorhinal cortex showed diminished amyloid plaques, and neurodegeneration in the treatment groups.

Conclusion: The present study showed that ethanolic extract from the roots of Cassia occidentalis L. At 100 and 200 mg/kg doses in Wistar rats improved memory damage, by reducing oxidative stress. Levels of the antioxidant enzymes as CAT, and SOD, GSH were increased and MDA was decreased. The cytokine levels in the serum of Wistar rats of IL-6 level and TNF-α level were reduced significantly. Estimation of total protein level was found to be increased. It restored neuronal degeneration in the Hippocampus, and Entorhinal cortex and reduced oxidative stress. This suggests that the ethanolic extract of Cassia occidentalis L. could be an effective therapeutic treatment for neurodegenerative diseases like AD.

Keywords: Amyloid beta plaque, biochemical estimation, catalase, Cassia occidentalis, Colchicine, conditioned avoidance response, donepezil hydrochloride, entorhinal cortex, hippocampus, histopathology study, IL-6, oxidative stress, protein estimation, spatial memory, TNF-α.

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