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Recent Advances in Drug Delivery and Formulation

Editor-in-Chief

ISSN (Print): 2667-3878
ISSN (Online): 2667-3886

Review Article

Navigating the Solution to Drug Formulation Problems at Research and Development Stages by Amorphous Solid Dispersion Technology

Author(s): Devika Tripathi*, Manjunatha Prabhu B.H, Jagannath Sahoo and Jyoti Kumari

Volume 18, Issue 2, 2024

Published on: 07 December, 2023

Page: [79 - 99] Pages: 21

DOI: 10.2174/0126673878271641231201065151

Price: $65

Abstract

Amorphous Solid Dispersions (ASDs) have indeed revolutionized the pharmaceutical industry, particularly in drug solubility enhancement. The amorphous state of a drug, which is a highenergy metastable state, can lead to an increase in the apparent solubility of the drug. This is due to the absence of a long-range molecular order, which results in higher molecular mobility and free volume, and consequently, higher solubility. The success of ASD preparation depends on the selection of appropriate excipients, particularly polymers that play a crucial role in drug solubility and physical stability. However, ASDs face challenges due to their thermodynamic instability or tendency to recrystallize. Measuring the crystallinity of the active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) and drug solubility is a complex process that requires a thorough understanding of drug-polymer miscibility and molecular interactions. Therefore, it is important to monitor drug solids closely during preparation, storage, and application. Techniques such as solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (ssNMR), attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR), Raman spectroscopy, and dielectric spectroscopy have been successful in understanding the mechanism of drug crystallization. In addition, the continuous downstream processing of drug-loaded ASDs has introduced new automated methods for consistent ASD production. Advanced techniques such as hot melt extrusion, KinetiSol, electro spraying, and electrospinning have gained popularity. This review provides a comprehensive overview of Amorphous Solid Dispersions (ASDs) for oral drug delivery. It highlights the critical challenges faced during formulation, the impact of manufacturing variables, theoretical aspects of drug-polymer interaction, and factors related to drug-polymer miscibility. ASDs have been recognized as a promising strategy to improve the oral bioavailability of poorly water-soluble drugs. However, the successful development of an ASD-based drug product is not straightforward due to the complexity of the ASD systems. The formulation and process parameters can significantly influence the performance of the final product. Understanding the interactions between the drug and polymer in ASDs is crucial for predicting their stability and performance.

Keywords: Amorphous solid dispersion, crystallinity prediction, physical stability, thermodynamic concern, dissolution behavior, stabilization manufacturing strategies.

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