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Cardiovascular & Hematological Disorders-Drug Targets


ISSN (Print): 1871-529X
ISSN (Online): 2212-4063

Review Article

Recent Developments in Drug Targets and Combination Therapy for the Clinical Management of Hypertension

Author(s): Pradeep Kumar Niranjan* and Shiv Bahadur

Volume 23, Issue 4, 2023

Published on: 30 November, 2023

Page: [226 - 245] Pages: 20

DOI: 10.2174/011871529X278907231120053559

Price: $65


Raised blood pressure is the most common complication worldwide that may lead to atherosclerosis and ischemic heart disease. Unhealthy lifestyles, smoking, alcohol consumption, junk food, and genetic disorders are some of the causes of hypertension. To treat this condition, numerous antihypertensive medications are available, either alone or in combination, that work via various mechanisms of action. Combinational therapy provides a certain advantage over monotherapy in the sense that it acts in multi mechanism mode and minimal drug amount is required to elicit the desired therapeutic effect. Such therapy is given to patients with systolic blood pressure greater than 20 mmHg and/or diastolic blood pressure exceeding 10 mmHg beyond the normal range, as well as those suffering from severe cardiovascular disease. The selection of antihypertensive medications, such as calcium channel blockers, angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors, angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs), and low-dose diuretics, hinges on their ability to manage blood pressure effectively and reduce cardiovascular disease risks. This review provides insights into the diverse monotherapy and combination therapy approaches used for elevated blood pressure management. In addition, it offers an analysis of combination therapy versus monotherapy and discusses the current status of these therapies, from researchbased findings to clinical trials.

Keywords: Cardiovascular disease, combination therapy, blood pressure management, angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors, calcium channel blockers (CCBs), diuretics.

Graphical Abstract
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A dose-escalation study in subjects with pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). Available from: (Accessed on: 2023-05-28).
Mechanisms of pregnancy vascular adaptations. Available from: (Accessed on: 2023-05-28).
Recombinant Human Angiotensin-converting Enzyme 2 (rhACE2) as a treatment for patients with COVID-19. Available from: (Accessed on: 2023-05-28).
Angiotensin 1-7 in Obesity Hypertension. Available from: (Accessed on: 2023-05-28).
Angiotensin-(1-7) in peripheral arterial disease. Available from: (Accessed on: 2023-05-28).
MANP in Hypertension and Metabolic Syndrome. Available from: (Accessed on: 2023-05-28).
Observation on the effect of sacubitril/valsartan in advanced Chronic Kidney Disease CKD patients with heart failure. Available from: (Accessed on: 2023-05-28).
Safety and efficacy of ANX-042 in human cardiorenal syndrome. Available from: (Accessed on: 2023-05-28).
Safety study of cenderitide in chronic stable heart failure with moderate renal impairment. Available from: (Accessed on: 2023-05-30).
Riociguat in children with Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension (PAH). Available from: (Accessed on:2023-05-30).
Patient-reported Outcomes in Vericiguat-treated Patients With HFpEF. Available from: (Accessed on: 2023-05-30).
A study of the effect of IW-1973 on the exercise capacity of patients with heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF). Available from: (Accessed on:2023-05-30).
A study to evaluate the soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC) stimulator IW-1973 in diabetic nephropathy/diabetic kidney disease as measured by albuminuria. Available from: (Accessed on: 2023-05-30).
Vitamin D and Omega-3 hypertension trial (VITAL Hypertension). Available from: (Accessed on: 2023-05-30).
The effect of antioxidants on skin blood flow during local heating. Available from: (Accessed on: 2023-05-30).
The Effect of Local Antioxidant Therapy on Racial Differences in Vasoconstriction. Available from: (Accessed on: 2023-05-30).

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